This Rmarkdown file shows the data processing, statistical analysis, and output. Anybody wishing to replicate and/or discuss the findings of the article can do so with the following data and code.

Packages

Loads required packages (installing them if needed).

rm(list=ls()) # clear workspace

# Load packages (installing them if needed)
list.of.packages <- c("rmarkdown","ggplot2", "plyr", "dplyr","reshape2","lme4","ggthemes","Hmisc", "Rmisc", "pastecs", "gtools")
new.packages <- list.of.packages[!(list.of.packages %in% installed.packages()[,"Package"])]
if(length(new.packages)) install.packages(new.packages)
sapply(list.of.packages, suppressPackageStartupMessages(require), warn.conflicts=F,quietly=T, character.only=T)
## Warning: package 'ggthemes' was built under R version 3.2.4
## 
## Attaching package: 'boot'
## The following object is masked from 'package:survival':
## 
##     aml
## The following object is masked from 'package:lattice':
## 
##     melanoma
## rmarkdown   ggplot2      plyr     dplyr  reshape2      lme4  ggthemes 
##      TRUE      TRUE      TRUE      TRUE      TRUE      TRUE      TRUE 
##     Hmisc     Rmisc   pastecs    gtools 
##      TRUE      TRUE      TRUE      TRUE

Version information for R base and packages used:

R.version.string
## [1] "R version 3.2.3 (2015-12-10)"
versions <- lapply(list.of.packages,packageVersion)
names(versions) <- list.of.packages
as.data.frame(versions)
##   rmarkdown ggplot2  plyr dplyr reshape2   lme4 ggthemes  Hmisc Rmisc
## 1    0.2.68   2.0.0 1.8.3 0.4.3    1.4.1 1.1.10    3.0.2 3.17.1   1.5
##   pastecs gtools
## 1  1.3.18  3.5.0

Load data

Load the full data file from clickbaitdatatoshare.txt.

data <- read.table("clickbaitdatatoshare.txt", header=TRUE)

Means per rater

# per rater
colMeans(data[,5:19])
##       PositiveFramingGL ArousalSocialCurrencyGL       ArousalPhrasingGL 
##              0.18398876              0.58941948              0.37453184 
##              WordplayGL              QuestionGL       PositiveFramingAF 
##              0.05571161              0.08239700              0.20973783 
## ArousalSocialCurrencyAF       ArousalPhrasingAF              WordplayAF 
##              0.20224719              0.12453184              0.01029963 
##              QuestionAF       PositiveFramingES ArousalSocialCurrencyES 
##              0.08239700              0.16619850              0.18679775 
##       ArousalPhrasingES              WordplayES              QuestionES 
##              0.11189139              0.05758427              0.08239700
# for best of three
colMeans(data[,20:24])
##       PositiveFramingBest ArousalSocialCurrencyBest 
##                0.18305243                0.26451311 
##       ArousalPhrasingBest              WordplayBest 
##                0.15215356                0.03558052 
##              QuestionBest 
##                0.08239700

Means per factor

mean(data$Score)
## [1] 9.916199
aggregate(Score~PositiveFramingBest, data, mean)
##   PositiveFramingBest     Score
## 1                   0  9.064183
## 2                   1 13.718670
aggregate(Score~ArousalSocialCurrencyBest, data, mean)
##   ArousalSocialCurrencyBest     Score
## 1                         0  7.403565
## 2                         1 16.902655
aggregate(Score~ArousalPhrasingBest, data, mean)
##   ArousalPhrasingBest     Score
## 1                   0  8.618443
## 2                   1 17.147692
aggregate(Score~WordplayBest, data, mean)
##   WordplayBest    Score
## 1            0 9.966505
## 2            1 8.552632
aggregate(Score~QuestionBest, data, mean)
##   QuestionBest    Score
## 1            0  9.70102
## 2            1 12.31250

Difference in Altmetric score per year?

scores13 <- subset(data, Year == "2013")
scores14 <- subset(data, Year == "2014")
t.test(scores13$Score,scores14$Score)
## 
##  Welch Two Sample t-test
## 
## data:  scores13$Score and scores14$Score
## t = 1.0566, df = 1530.1, p-value = 0.2909
## alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is not equal to 0
## 95 percent confidence interval:
##  -1.183791  3.948229
## sample estimates:
## mean of x mean of y 
## 10.758084  9.375865

Plot Altmetric score per factor with means

## define custom mean function
temp <- select(data, Title, Score, PositiveFramingBest, ArousalPhrasingBest, WordplayBest, QuestionBest)
melteddf <- melt(temp, id=c("Score","Title"))
melteddf$value <- as.factor(melteddf$value)

plot.mean <- function(x) {
  m <- mean(x)
  c(y = m, ymin = m, ymax = m)
}

ggplot(melteddf, aes(x=as.numeric(interaction(value, variable)), y=Score, colour=value)) +
  geom_jitter(position = position_jitter(width = 0.3, height = 0.3), aes(colour=value), alpha=0.2, size=4.5) +
  stat_summary(fun.data="plot.mean", geom="errorbar", colour="black", width=0.5, size=1.5) +
  coord_cartesian(ylim=c(0, 40))+
  ggtitle("Measures of clickbait and Altmetric score")+
  scale_colour_manual(values=c("#D55E00", "#009E73"), labels=c("no", "yes"))+  
  ylab("Altmetric score")+
  xlab("Clickbait measure")+
  scale_x_continuous(breaks = c(1.5,3.5,5.5, 7.5), labels = c("Positive Framing", "Phrasing Arousal", "Wordplay", "Question")) +
  guides(colour = guide_legend(title = "Present?", override.aes = list(alpha = 1))) +
  theme_bw()+
  theme(plot.title=  element_text( face="bold"), 
        axis.text = element_text(size=12), 
        text = element_text(size=14))#,

Plot correlation between Altmetric score and title length

rcorr(data$Length, data$Score)
##       x     y
## x  1.00 -0.04
## y -0.04  1.00
## 
## n= 2136 
## 
## 
## P
##   x      y     
## x        0.0827
## y 0.0827
coef(lm(Score ~ Length, data = data))
## (Intercept)      Length 
##  12.7788637  -0.2331345
# intercept = 12.7788637, slope = -0.2331345

ggplot(data, aes(x=Length, y=Score)) + 
  geom_point() + 
  geom_abline(intercept = 12.7788637, slope = -0.2331345, size = 1, colour="red") +
  ggtitle("Title length and Altmetric Score") +
  xlab("Article Title Length") +
  ylab("Altmetric Score") +
  theme_classic() +
  scale_x_continuous(limits=c(0, 30), breaks=seq(0,30,by=5))+ 
  theme(plot.title=  element_text( face="bold"), 
      axis.text = element_text(size=12), 
      text = element_text(size=14))#,

Statistics

data$Title <- as.factor(data$Title)
data$ArousalPhrasingBest <- as.factor(as.character(data$ArousalPhrasingBest))
data$PositiveFramingBest <- as.factor(as.character(data$PositiveFramingBest))
data$QuestionBest <- as.factor(as.character(data$QuestionBest))
data$WordplayBest <- as.factor(as.character(data$WordplayBest))
data$ArousalSocialCurrencyBest <- as.factor(as.character(data$ArousalSocialCurrencyBest))

# log transform score
data$ScoreTransformed <- log(data$Score)

model.full <- lm(Score ~ ArousalPhrasingBest + 
                     PositiveFramingBest + 
                     WordplayBest +
                     ArousalSocialCurrencyBest + 
                     Length,
                   data=data)

model.fullT <- lm(ScoreTransformed ~ ArousalPhrasingBest + 
                    PositiveFramingBest + 
                    WordplayBest +
                    ArousalSocialCurrencyBest + 
                    Length,
                  data=data)

model.first <- lm(ScoreTransformed ~ ArousalSocialCurrencyBest + Length,
                  data=data)

model.framing <- lm(ScoreTransformed ~ PositiveFramingBest +
                      ArousalSocialCurrencyBest + Length,
                  data=data)


model.framingphrasing <- lm(ScoreTransformed ~ PositiveFramingBest +
                              ArousalPhrasingBest +
                              ArousalSocialCurrencyBest + Length,
                            data=data)

model.framingphrasingwordplay <- lm(ScoreTransformed ~ PositiveFramingBest +
                              ArousalPhrasingBest +
                                WordplayBest +
                              ArousalSocialCurrencyBest + Length,
                            data=data)

model.framingphrasingwordplayquestion <- lm(ScoreTransformed ~ PositiveFramingBest +
                                      ArousalPhrasingBest +
                                      WordplayBest +
                                      QuestionBest +
                                      ArousalSocialCurrencyBest + Length,
                                    data=data)

anova(model.first, model.framing, model.framingphrasing, model.framingphrasingwordplay, model.framingphrasingwordplayquestion)
## Analysis of Variance Table
## 
## Model 1: ScoreTransformed ~ ArousalSocialCurrencyBest + Length
## Model 2: ScoreTransformed ~ PositiveFramingBest + ArousalSocialCurrencyBest + 
##     Length
## Model 3: ScoreTransformed ~ PositiveFramingBest + ArousalPhrasingBest + 
##     ArousalSocialCurrencyBest + Length
## Model 4: ScoreTransformed ~ PositiveFramingBest + ArousalPhrasingBest + 
##     WordplayBest + ArousalSocialCurrencyBest + Length
## Model 5: ScoreTransformed ~ PositiveFramingBest + ArousalPhrasingBest + 
##     WordplayBest + QuestionBest + ArousalSocialCurrencyBest + 
##     Length
##   Res.Df    RSS Df Sum of Sq       F    Pr(>F)    
## 1   2133 2453.7                                   
## 2   2132 2447.7  1     5.968  5.3465   0.02086 *  
## 3   2131 2382.1  1    65.609 58.7724 2.672e-14 ***
## 4   2130 2376.7  1     5.445  4.8772   0.02732 *  
## 5   2129 2376.6  1     0.045  0.0400   0.84143    
## ---
## Signif. codes:  0 '***' 0.001 '**' 0.01 '*' 0.05 '.' 0.1 ' ' 1
# fit of model continues to improve while adding the al clickbait factors except question

# so full model with no question is good
summary(model.fullT)
## 
## Call:
## lm(formula = ScoreTransformed ~ ArousalPhrasingBest + PositiveFramingBest + 
##     WordplayBest + ArousalSocialCurrencyBest + Length, data = data)
## 
## Residuals:
##     Min      1Q  Median      3Q     Max 
## -2.4763 -0.6761 -0.1538  0.5745  4.9411 
## 
## Coefficients:
##                             Estimate Std. Error t value Pr(>|t|)    
## (Intercept)                 1.515340   0.066677  22.726  < 2e-16 ***
## ArousalPhrasingBest1        0.565216   0.072109   7.838 7.15e-15 ***
## PositiveFramingBest1        0.152892   0.059842   2.555   0.0107 *  
## WordplayBest1              -0.306143   0.138593  -2.209   0.0273 *  
## ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1  0.512581   0.052459   9.771  < 2e-16 ***
## Length                     -0.029217   0.005088  -5.743 1.06e-08 ***
## ---
## Signif. codes:  0 '***' 0.001 '**' 0.01 '*' 0.05 '.' 0.1 ' ' 1
## 
## Residual standard error: 1.056 on 2130 degrees of freedom
## Multiple R-squared:  0.09029,    Adjusted R-squared:  0.08816 
## F-statistic: 42.28 on 5 and 2130 DF,  p-value: < 2.2e-16
# but we need to transform estimates back to normal scale
exp(coef(model.fullT))[1]
## (Intercept) 
##    4.550968
# gives intercept as altmetric points (i.e. mean for none of the effects and for mean length)

exp(coef(model.fullT)[2:length(coef(model.fullT))] + coef(model.fullT)[1])
##       ArousalPhrasingBest1       PositiveFramingBest1 
##                   8.008921                   5.302783 
##              WordplayBest1 ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1 
##                   3.350792                   7.598273 
##                     Length 
##                   4.419926
# gives altmetric points per effect compared to intercept

# actual coefficients:
(exp(coef(model.fullT)[2:length(coef(model.fullT))] + coef(model.fullT)[1])) - exp(coef(model.fullT))[1]
##       ArousalPhrasingBest1       PositiveFramingBest1 
##                  3.4579526                  0.7518143 
##              WordplayBest1 ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1 
##                 -1.2001767                  3.0473048 
##                     Length 
##                 -0.1310420
# interaction model
model.interactions <- lm(ScoreTransformed ~ PositiveFramingBest *
                                      ArousalPhrasingBest *
                                      WordplayBest *
                                      ArousalSocialCurrencyBest * Length,
                                    data=data)

summary(model.interactions)
## 
## Call:
## lm(formula = ScoreTransformed ~ PositiveFramingBest * ArousalPhrasingBest * 
##     WordplayBest * ArousalSocialCurrencyBest * Length, data = data)
## 
## Residuals:
##     Min      1Q  Median      3Q     Max 
## -2.5087 -0.6546 -0.1529  0.5743  4.9160 
## 
## Coefficients: (8 not defined because of singularities)
##                                                                                            Estimate
## (Intercept)                                                                                1.467918
## PositiveFramingBest1                                                                       0.338878
## ArousalPhrasingBest1                                                                       0.808871
## WordplayBest1                                                                             -0.636365
## ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                                                                 0.326466
## Length                                                                                    -0.024041
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1                                                 -0.557040
## PositiveFramingBest1:WordplayBest1                                                         1.246547
## ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1                                                               NA
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                                            0.844180
## ArousalPhrasingBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                                           -0.029296
## WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                                                   0.688464
## PositiveFramingBest1:Length                                                               -0.017452
## ArousalPhrasingBest1:Length                                                               -0.029035
## WordplayBest1:Length                                                                       0.042444
## ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length                                                          0.010448
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1                                          NA
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                      -0.668655
## PositiveFramingBest1:WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                             -3.785558
## ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                                    NA
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1:Length                                           0.052234
## PositiveFramingBest1:WordplayBest1:Length                                                 -0.095325
## ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1:Length                                                        NA
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length                                    -0.052848
## ArousalPhrasingBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length                                     0.026324
## WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length                                           -0.094664
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1               NA
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1:Length                                   NA
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length                0.028011
## PositiveFramingBest1:WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length                       0.248399
## ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length                             NA
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length        NA
##                                                                                           Std. Error
## (Intercept)                                                                                 0.090667
## PositiveFramingBest1                                                                        0.232297
## ArousalPhrasingBest1                                                                        0.275726
## WordplayBest1                                                                               0.555001
## ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                                                                  0.186553
## Length                                                                                      0.007267
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1                                                   0.914143
## PositiveFramingBest1:WordplayBest1                                                          1.536790
## ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1                                                                NA
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                                             0.442640
## ArousalPhrasingBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                                             0.447460
## WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                                                    0.881172
## PositiveFramingBest1:Length                                                                 0.016894
## ArousalPhrasingBest1:Length                                                                 0.020508
## WordplayBest1:Length                                                                        0.040511
## ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length                                                           0.014217
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1                                           NA
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                        1.262130
## PositiveFramingBest1:WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                               3.021820
## ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                                     NA
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1:Length                                            0.062578
## PositiveFramingBest1:WordplayBest1:Length                                                   0.101059
## ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1:Length                                                         NA
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length                                      0.031325
## ArousalPhrasingBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length                                      0.034398
## WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length                                             0.066114
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                NA
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1:Length                                    NA
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length                 0.084712
## PositiveFramingBest1:WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length                        0.187150
## ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length                              NA
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length         NA
##                                                                                           t value
## (Intercept)                                                                                16.190
## PositiveFramingBest1                                                                        1.459
## ArousalPhrasingBest1                                                                        2.934
## WordplayBest1                                                                              -1.147
## ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                                                                  1.750
## Length                                                                                     -3.309
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1                                                  -0.609
## PositiveFramingBest1:WordplayBest1                                                          0.811
## ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1                                                             NA
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                                             1.907
## ArousalPhrasingBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                                            -0.065
## WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                                                    0.781
## PositiveFramingBest1:Length                                                                -1.033
## ArousalPhrasingBest1:Length                                                                -1.416
## WordplayBest1:Length                                                                        1.048
## ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length                                                           0.735
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1                                        NA
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                       -0.530
## PositiveFramingBest1:WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                              -1.253
## ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                                  NA
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1:Length                                            0.835
## PositiveFramingBest1:WordplayBest1:Length                                                  -0.943
## ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1:Length                                                      NA
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length                                     -1.687
## ArousalPhrasingBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length                                      0.765
## WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length                                            -1.432
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1             NA
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1:Length                                 NA
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length                 0.331
## PositiveFramingBest1:WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length                        1.327
## ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length                           NA
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length      NA
##                                                                                           Pr(>|t|)
## (Intercept)                                                                                < 2e-16
## PositiveFramingBest1                                                                      0.144765
## ArousalPhrasingBest1                                                                      0.003387
## WordplayBest1                                                                             0.251676
## ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                                                                0.080265
## Length                                                                                    0.000954
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1                                                 0.542353
## PositiveFramingBest1:WordplayBest1                                                        0.417378
## ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1                                                              NA
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                                           0.056637
## ArousalPhrasingBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                                           0.947805
## WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                                                  0.434711
## PositiveFramingBest1:Length                                                               0.301710
## ArousalPhrasingBest1:Length                                                               0.156990
## WordplayBest1:Length                                                                      0.294886
## ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length                                                         0.462460
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1                                         NA
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                      0.596318
## PositiveFramingBest1:WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                             0.210439
## ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                                   NA
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1:Length                                          0.403973
## PositiveFramingBest1:WordplayBest1:Length                                                 0.345653
## ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1:Length                                                       NA
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length                                    0.091738
## ArousalPhrasingBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length                                    0.444199
## WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length                                           0.152339
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1              NA
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1:Length                                  NA
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length               0.740934
## PositiveFramingBest1:WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length                      0.184563
## ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length                            NA
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length       NA
##                                                                                              
## (Intercept)                                                                               ***
## PositiveFramingBest1                                                                         
## ArousalPhrasingBest1                                                                      ** 
## WordplayBest1                                                                                
## ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                                                                .  
## Length                                                                                    ***
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1                                                    
## PositiveFramingBest1:WordplayBest1                                                           
## ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1                                                           
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                                           .  
## ArousalPhrasingBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                                              
## WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                                                     
## PositiveFramingBest1:Length                                                                  
## ArousalPhrasingBest1:Length                                                                  
## WordplayBest1:Length                                                                         
## ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length                                                            
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1                                      
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                         
## PositiveFramingBest1:WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                                
## ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1                                
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1:Length                                             
## PositiveFramingBest1:WordplayBest1:Length                                                    
## ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1:Length                                                    
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length                                    .  
## ArousalPhrasingBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length                                       
## WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length                                              
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1           
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1:Length                               
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length                  
## PositiveFramingBest1:WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length                         
## ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length                         
## PositiveFramingBest1:ArousalPhrasingBest1:WordplayBest1:ArousalSocialCurrencyBest1:Length    
## ---
## Signif. codes:  0 '***' 0.001 '**' 0.01 '*' 0.05 '.' 0.1 ' ' 1
## 
## Residual standard error: 1.056 on 2112 degrees of freedom
## Multiple R-squared:  0.09794,    Adjusted R-squared:  0.08812 
## F-statistic:  9.97 on 23 and 2112 DF,  p-value: < 2.2e-16